Are you the publisher? Claim or contact us about this channel


Embed this content in your HTML

Search

Report adult content:

click to rate:

Account: (login)

More Channels


Showcase


Channel Catalog


Channel Description:

ReliefWeb - Updates on Democratic People's Republic of Korea

older | 1 | (Page 2) | 3 | 4 | newer

    0 0

    Source: School for a Culture of Peace
    Country: Philippines, Georgia, India, Pakistan, Sudan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Burundi, Colombia, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Indonesia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Angola, Nigeria, Iraq, Israel, occupied Palestinian territory, Uganda


    - Con excepción de Argelia, existían negociaciones formales o exploratorias en todos los conflictos africanos. A escala global, en el 73% de los conflictos armados existentes hay negociaciones abiertas.
    - Una vez completado el despliegue de las misiones de mantenimiento de la paz en Côte d'Ivoire, Somalia, Sudán y RD Congo, en estos cuatro países habrá unos 54.000 cascos azules.

    - Finalizaron sin éxito los intentos de negociación con la guerrilla ELN, en Colombia, y con el grupo maoísta CPI, en el estado de Andra Pradesh (India).

    - En Iraq se multiplicaron los contactos entre EEUU y el Gobierno iraquí con grupos de la resistencia.

    En este apartado se analizan aquellos conflictos armados o conflictos no resueltos que han entrado en una fase de negociación formal, que están inmersos en un claro proceso de paz o que están explorando el inicio de unas negociaciones. De los 30 procesos analizados (dos menos que en el trimestre anterior), 12 corresponden al continente asiático y 12 al africano, en 26 hay negociaciones formales y en 4 se están explorando posibilidades. 18 negociaciones o exploraciones corresponden a conflictos armados y 12 a conflictos no resueltos. Durante el trimestre finalizaron sin éxito los intentos de negociación con la guerrilla ELN, en Colombia, y con el grupo maoísta CPI, en el estado de Andra Pradesh (India).

    3.1. Evolución de los procesos de paz

    Tabla 3.1. Evolución de las negociaciones al finalizar el segundo trimestre
    Bien (6) Con dificultades (14) Mal (6) En exploración (4)
    Filipinas (MILF)
    Georgia (Abjazia)
    India (DHD)
    India (NDFB)
    India-Pakistán
    Sudán (SPLA-NDA)
    Armenia-Azerbaiyán
    Burundi (FNL)
    Colombia (AUC)
    Congo
    Côte d'Ivoire
    Georgia (Osetia del Sur)
    India (NSCN-IM)
    India (ULFA)
    Indonesia (GAM)
    RD Congo (Kivu e Ituri)
    RPD Corea-EEUU
    Senegal (Casamance)
    Somalia
    Sri Lanka
    Angola (Cabinda)
    Filipinas (NPA)
    Myanmar
    Nigeria (Delta)
    Sáhara Occidental
    Sudán (SLA-JEM)
    Filipinas (escisión del MNLF)
    Iraq
    Israel-Palestina
    Uganda (LRA)
    (En cursiva se señalan los conflictos no resueltos y que no están en fase de lucha armada)


    África

    a) África Occidental

    En Côte d'Ivoire, y después de varios meses de tensiones, en abril se firmó en Pretoria (Sudáfrica) un inmediato alto el fuego entre el Gobierno y los tres grupos armados de oposición agrupados en la coalición Forces Nouvelles, tras unas negociaciones auspiciadas por el mandatario sudafricano, T. Mbeki. Dicho acuerdo contemplaba también el desarme y desmantelamiento de las milicias progubernamentales y de las Forces Nouvelles. Este fue el tercer acuerdo firmado entre las partes desde 2002, y permitió que dos de los nueve ministros de la coalición regresaran al Gobierno, que se hablara de impulsar el varias veces aplazado programa de desarme, desmovilización y reinserción de los combatientes y de una parte de las FFAA, bajo la supervisión de la misión de mantenimiento de la paz de la ONU (UNOCI), y permitir que en las próximas elecciones presidenciales pueda presentarse uno de los principales líderes de la oposición. El proceso de paz, no obstante, se vió enturbiado a principios de junio a causa de unos enfrentamientos entre diferentes comunidades, por la amenaza de la oposición con no presentarse a las elecciones si no pueden participar en su preparación, por las reticencias de las Forces Nouvelles a desarmarse y por las acusaciones de este grupo contra el Presidente, al señalar que estaría preparando la reanudación de los ataques sobre el norte del país. A finales de junio empezó en Pretoria una segunda fase de las negociaciones, en la que las partes acordaron el inicio definitivo del proceso de desarme de las milicias progubernamentales a partir del 20 de agosto. El acuerdo también prevé la aprobación por parte del Parlamento ivoriense de siete leyes propuestas por el equipo mediador. La ONU ha previsto incrementar la presencia de tropas internacionales de pacificación hasta llegar a unos 10.000 efectivos.

    En Nigeria volvieron a producirse serios enfrentamientos intercomunitarios en varios estados de la región del Delta del Níger, con el resultado de más de un centenar de víctimas. Como aspecto positivo, es de señalar que a finales de mayo el Gobierno designó al cura católico nigeriano M. Kukah, como mediador independiente para facilitar negociaciones entre la empresa transnacional Royal/Dutch/Shell y el grupo activista Movimiento para la Supervivencia de Gente Ogoni (MOSOP) y otros líderes ogoni. En Senegal, finalmente, una escisión del grupo armado de oposición MFDC asumió en junio la responsabilidad de unos ataques en la región de Casamance, por lo que no se ha logrado la pacificación definitiva de la región.

    b) Cuerno de África

    El proceso de paz de Somalia continuó pendiente del logro de un entorno de seguridad suficiente para que el conjunto del Gobierno Federal de Transición (GFT) pueda instalarse definitivamente en el país, ya sea en la capital o en otras ciudades. Mientras se negociaban estas condiciones de seguridad, se fue preparando el contingente africano de países de la IGAD que conformarán la misión de mantenimiento de la paz de la UA. La Liga Árabe se comprometió a aportar un contingente militar. Esta misión tuvo que sortear numerosos obstáculos, debido a limitaciones legales, a las divisiones en el seno del GNT respecto al cometido y composición de la misión, a la falta de fondos y a la inseguridad del país. No obstante, tres de los principales “señores de la guerra” de la capital acordaron formar una fuerza conjunta para restaurar la seguridad en dicha ciudad, iniciando un primer proceso de entrega de armas y de acantonamiento de sus milicias. En mayo, el Secretario General de la ONU nombró al antiguo Primer Ministro guineano, F. Lonseng Fall, como su Representante Especial para Somalia, y a mediados de junio, el GFT inició su traslado desde Nairobi a la ciudad somalí de Jowhar. El Gobierno, además, nombró a sus dos primeros embajadores (en Naciones Unidas y en China), aprobó su primer presupuesto, por un importe de 229 millones de euros y empezó unas conferencias de reconciliación en cada uno de los 93 distritos de Somalia. El Viceministro de Defensa anunció el restablecimiento de las FFAA en el país.

    (pdf* format - 80 KB)


    0 0

    Source: School for a Culture of Peace
    Country: Angola, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Burundi, Colombia, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Georgia, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Israel, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Uganda

    • Con excepción de Argelia, existían negociaciones formales o exploratorias en todos los conflictos africanos. A escala global, en el 73% de los conflictos armados existentes hay negociaciones abiertas.

    • Una vez completado el despliegue de las misiones de mantenimiento de la paz en Côte d'Ivoire, Somalia, Sudán y RD Congo, en estos cuatro países habrá unos 54.000 cascos azules.

    • Finalizaron sin éxito los intentos de negociación con la guerrilla ELN, en Colombia, y con el grupo maoísta CPI, en el estado de Andra Pradesh (India).

    • En Iraq se multiplicaron los contactos entre EEUU y el Gobierno iraquí con grupos de la resistencia.


    0 0

    Source: School for a Culture of Peace
    Country: Philippines, Georgia, India, Pakistan, Sudan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Burundi, Colombia, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Indonesia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Angola, Nigeria, Iraq, Israel, occupied Palestinian territory, Uganda


    - Con excepción de Argelia, existían negociaciones formales o exploratorias en todos los conflictos africanos. A escala global, en el 73% de los conflictos armados existentes hay negociaciones abiertas.
    - Una vez completado el despliegue de las misiones de mantenimiento de la paz en Côte d'Ivoire, Somalia, Sudán y RD Congo, en estos cuatro países habrá unos 54.000 cascos azules.

    - Finalizaron sin éxito los intentos de negociación con la guerrilla ELN, en Colombia, y con el grupo maoísta CPI, en el estado de Andra Pradesh (India).

    - En Iraq se multiplicaron los contactos entre EEUU y el Gobierno iraquí con grupos de la resistencia.

    En este apartado se analizan aquellos conflictos armados o conflictos no resueltos que han entrado en una fase de negociación formal, que están inmersos en un claro proceso de paz o que están explorando el inicio de unas negociaciones. De los 30 procesos analizados (dos menos que en el trimestre anterior), 12 corresponden al continente asiático y 12 al africano, en 26 hay negociaciones formales y en 4 se están explorando posibilidades. 18 negociaciones o exploraciones corresponden a conflictos armados y 12 a conflictos no resueltos. Durante el trimestre finalizaron sin éxito los intentos de negociación con la guerrilla ELN, en Colombia, y con el grupo maoísta CPI, en el estado de Andra Pradesh (India).

    3.1. Evolución de los procesos de paz

    Tabla 3.1. Evolución de las negociaciones al finalizar el segundo trimestre
    Bien (6) Con dificultades (14) Mal (6) En exploración (4)
    Filipinas (MILF)
    Georgia (Abjazia)
    India (DHD)
    India (NDFB)
    India-Pakistán
    Sudán (SPLA-NDA)
    Armenia-Azerbaiyán
    Burundi (FNL)
    Colombia (AUC)
    Congo
    Côte d'Ivoire
    Georgia (Osetia del Sur)
    India (NSCN-IM)
    India (ULFA)
    Indonesia (GAM)
    RD Congo (Kivu e Ituri)
    RPD Corea-EEUU
    Senegal (Casamance)
    Somalia
    Sri Lanka
    Angola (Cabinda)
    Filipinas (NPA)
    Myanmar
    Nigeria (Delta)
    Sáhara Occidental
    Sudán (SLA-JEM)
    Filipinas (escisión del MNLF)
    Iraq
    Israel-Palestina
    Uganda (LRA)
    (En cursiva se señalan los conflictos no resueltos y que no están en fase de lucha armada)


    África

    a) África Occidental

    En Côte d'Ivoire, y después de varios meses de tensiones, en abril se firmó en Pretoria (Sudáfrica) un inmediato alto el fuego entre el Gobierno y los tres grupos armados de oposición agrupados en la coalición Forces Nouvelles, tras unas negociaciones auspiciadas por el mandatario sudafricano, T. Mbeki. Dicho acuerdo contemplaba también el desarme y desmantelamiento de las milicias progubernamentales y de las Forces Nouvelles. Este fue el tercer acuerdo firmado entre las partes desde 2002, y permitió que dos de los nueve ministros de la coalición regresaran al Gobierno, que se hablara de impulsar el varias veces aplazado programa de desarme, desmovilización y reinserción de los combatientes y de una parte de las FFAA, bajo la supervisión de la misión de mantenimiento de la paz de la ONU (UNOCI), y permitir que en las próximas elecciones presidenciales pueda presentarse uno de los principales líderes de la oposición. El proceso de paz, no obstante, se vió enturbiado a principios de junio a causa de unos enfrentamientos entre diferentes comunidades, por la amenaza de la oposición con no presentarse a las elecciones si no pueden participar en su preparación, por las reticencias de las Forces Nouvelles a desarmarse y por las acusaciones de este grupo contra el Presidente, al señalar que estaría preparando la reanudación de los ataques sobre el norte del país. A finales de junio empezó en Pretoria una segunda fase de las negociaciones, en la que las partes acordaron el inicio definitivo del proceso de desarme de las milicias progubernamentales a partir del 20 de agosto. El acuerdo también prevé la aprobación por parte del Parlamento ivoriense de siete leyes propuestas por el equipo mediador. La ONU ha previsto incrementar la presencia de tropas internacionales de pacificación hasta llegar a unos 10.000 efectivos.

    En Nigeria volvieron a producirse serios enfrentamientos intercomunitarios en varios estados de la región del Delta del Níger, con el resultado de más de un centenar de víctimas. Como aspecto positivo, es de señalar que a finales de mayo el Gobierno designó al cura católico nigeriano M. Kukah, como mediador independiente para facilitar negociaciones entre la empresa transnacional Royal/Dutch/Shell y el grupo activista Movimiento para la Supervivencia de Gente Ogoni (MOSOP) y otros líderes ogoni. En Senegal, finalmente, una escisión del grupo armado de oposición MFDC asumió en junio la responsabilidad de unos ataques en la región de Casamance, por lo que no se ha logrado la pacificación definitiva de la región.

    b) Cuerno de África

    El proceso de paz de Somalia continuó pendiente del logro de un entorno de seguridad suficiente para que el conjunto del Gobierno Federal de Transición (GFT) pueda instalarse definitivamente en el país, ya sea en la capital o en otras ciudades. Mientras se negociaban estas condiciones de seguridad, se fue preparando el contingente africano de países de la IGAD que conformarán la misión de mantenimiento de la paz de la UA. La Liga Árabe se comprometió a aportar un contingente militar. Esta misión tuvo que sortear numerosos obstáculos, debido a limitaciones legales, a las divisiones en el seno del GNT respecto al cometido y composición de la misión, a la falta de fondos y a la inseguridad del país. No obstante, tres de los principales “señores de la guerra” de la capital acordaron formar una fuerza conjunta para restaurar la seguridad en dicha ciudad, iniciando un primer proceso de entrega de armas y de acantonamiento de sus milicias. En mayo, el Secretario General de la ONU nombró al antiguo Primer Ministro guineano, F. Lonseng Fall, como su Representante Especial para Somalia, y a mediados de junio, el GFT inició su traslado desde Nairobi a la ciudad somalí de Jowhar. El Gobierno, además, nombró a sus dos primeros embajadores (en Naciones Unidas y en China), aprobó su primer presupuesto, por un importe de 229 millones de euros y empezó unas conferencias de reconciliación en cada uno de los 93 distritos de Somalia. El Viceministro de Defensa anunció el restablecimiento de las FFAA en el país.

    (pdf* format - 80 KB)


    0 0

    Source: School for a Culture of Peace
    Country: Angola, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Burundi, Colombia, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Georgia, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Israel, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Uganda

    • Con excepción de Argelia, existían negociaciones formales o exploratorias en todos los conflictos africanos. A escala global, en el 73% de los conflictos armados existentes hay negociaciones abiertas.

    • Una vez completado el despliegue de las misiones de mantenimiento de la paz en Côte d'Ivoire, Somalia, Sudán y RD Congo, en estos cuatro países habrá unos 54.000 cascos azules.

    • Finalizaron sin éxito los intentos de negociación con la guerrilla ELN, en Colombia, y con el grupo maoísta CPI, en el estado de Andra Pradesh (India).

    • En Iraq se multiplicaron los contactos entre EEUU y el Gobierno iraquí con grupos de la resistencia.


    0 0

    Source: School for a Culture of Peace
    Country: Philippines, Georgia, India, Pakistan, Sudan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Burundi, Colombia, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Indonesia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Angola, Nigeria, Iraq, Israel, occupied Palestinian territory, Uganda


    - Con excepción de Argelia, existían negociaciones formales o exploratorias en todos los conflictos africanos. A escala global, en el 73% de los conflictos armados existentes hay negociaciones abiertas.
    - Una vez completado el despliegue de las misiones de mantenimiento de la paz en Côte d'Ivoire, Somalia, Sudán y RD Congo, en estos cuatro países habrá unos 54.000 cascos azules.

    - Finalizaron sin éxito los intentos de negociación con la guerrilla ELN, en Colombia, y con el grupo maoísta CPI, en el estado de Andra Pradesh (India).

    - En Iraq se multiplicaron los contactos entre EEUU y el Gobierno iraquí con grupos de la resistencia.

    En este apartado se analizan aquellos conflictos armados o conflictos no resueltos que han entrado en una fase de negociación formal, que están inmersos en un claro proceso de paz o que están explorando el inicio de unas negociaciones. De los 30 procesos analizados (dos menos que en el trimestre anterior), 12 corresponden al continente asiático y 12 al africano, en 26 hay negociaciones formales y en 4 se están explorando posibilidades. 18 negociaciones o exploraciones corresponden a conflictos armados y 12 a conflictos no resueltos. Durante el trimestre finalizaron sin éxito los intentos de negociación con la guerrilla ELN, en Colombia, y con el grupo maoísta CPI, en el estado de Andra Pradesh (India).

    3.1. Evolución de los procesos de paz

    Tabla 3.1. Evolución de las negociaciones al finalizar el segundo trimestre
    Bien (6) Con dificultades (14) Mal (6) En exploración (4)
    Filipinas (MILF)
    Georgia (Abjazia)
    India (DHD)
    India (NDFB)
    India-Pakistán
    Sudán (SPLA-NDA)
    Armenia-Azerbaiyán
    Burundi (FNL)
    Colombia (AUC)
    Congo
    Côte d'Ivoire
    Georgia (Osetia del Sur)
    India (NSCN-IM)
    India (ULFA)
    Indonesia (GAM)
    RD Congo (Kivu e Ituri)
    RPD Corea-EEUU
    Senegal (Casamance)
    Somalia
    Sri Lanka
    Angola (Cabinda)
    Filipinas (NPA)
    Myanmar
    Nigeria (Delta)
    Sáhara Occidental
    Sudán (SLA-JEM)
    Filipinas (escisión del MNLF)
    Iraq
    Israel-Palestina
    Uganda (LRA)
    (En cursiva se señalan los conflictos no resueltos y que no están en fase de lucha armada)


    África

    a) África Occidental

    En Côte d'Ivoire, y después de varios meses de tensiones, en abril se firmó en Pretoria (Sudáfrica) un inmediato alto el fuego entre el Gobierno y los tres grupos armados de oposición agrupados en la coalición Forces Nouvelles, tras unas negociaciones auspiciadas por el mandatario sudafricano, T. Mbeki. Dicho acuerdo contemplaba también el desarme y desmantelamiento de las milicias progubernamentales y de las Forces Nouvelles. Este fue el tercer acuerdo firmado entre las partes desde 2002, y permitió que dos de los nueve ministros de la coalición regresaran al Gobierno, que se hablara de impulsar el varias veces aplazado programa de desarme, desmovilización y reinserción de los combatientes y de una parte de las FFAA, bajo la supervisión de la misión de mantenimiento de la paz de la ONU (UNOCI), y permitir que en las próximas elecciones presidenciales pueda presentarse uno de los principales líderes de la oposición. El proceso de paz, no obstante, se vió enturbiado a principios de junio a causa de unos enfrentamientos entre diferentes comunidades, por la amenaza de la oposición con no presentarse a las elecciones si no pueden participar en su preparación, por las reticencias de las Forces Nouvelles a desarmarse y por las acusaciones de este grupo contra el Presidente, al señalar que estaría preparando la reanudación de los ataques sobre el norte del país. A finales de junio empezó en Pretoria una segunda fase de las negociaciones, en la que las partes acordaron el inicio definitivo del proceso de desarme de las milicias progubernamentales a partir del 20 de agosto. El acuerdo también prevé la aprobación por parte del Parlamento ivoriense de siete leyes propuestas por el equipo mediador. La ONU ha previsto incrementar la presencia de tropas internacionales de pacificación hasta llegar a unos 10.000 efectivos.

    En Nigeria volvieron a producirse serios enfrentamientos intercomunitarios en varios estados de la región del Delta del Níger, con el resultado de más de un centenar de víctimas. Como aspecto positivo, es de señalar que a finales de mayo el Gobierno designó al cura católico nigeriano M. Kukah, como mediador independiente para facilitar negociaciones entre la empresa transnacional Royal/Dutch/Shell y el grupo activista Movimiento para la Supervivencia de Gente Ogoni (MOSOP) y otros líderes ogoni. En Senegal, finalmente, una escisión del grupo armado de oposición MFDC asumió en junio la responsabilidad de unos ataques en la región de Casamance, por lo que no se ha logrado la pacificación definitiva de la región.

    b) Cuerno de África

    El proceso de paz de Somalia continuó pendiente del logro de un entorno de seguridad suficiente para que el conjunto del Gobierno Federal de Transición (GFT) pueda instalarse definitivamente en el país, ya sea en la capital o en otras ciudades. Mientras se negociaban estas condiciones de seguridad, se fue preparando el contingente africano de países de la IGAD que conformarán la misión de mantenimiento de la paz de la UA. La Liga Árabe se comprometió a aportar un contingente militar. Esta misión tuvo que sortear numerosos obstáculos, debido a limitaciones legales, a las divisiones en el seno del GNT respecto al cometido y composición de la misión, a la falta de fondos y a la inseguridad del país. No obstante, tres de los principales “señores de la guerra” de la capital acordaron formar una fuerza conjunta para restaurar la seguridad en dicha ciudad, iniciando un primer proceso de entrega de armas y de acantonamiento de sus milicias. En mayo, el Secretario General de la ONU nombró al antiguo Primer Ministro guineano, F. Lonseng Fall, como su Representante Especial para Somalia, y a mediados de junio, el GFT inició su traslado desde Nairobi a la ciudad somalí de Jowhar. El Gobierno, además, nombró a sus dos primeros embajadores (en Naciones Unidas y en China), aprobó su primer presupuesto, por un importe de 229 millones de euros y empezó unas conferencias de reconciliación en cada uno de los 93 distritos de Somalia. El Viceministro de Defensa anunció el restablecimiento de las FFAA en el país.

    (pdf* format - 80 KB)


    0 0

    Source: School for a Culture of Peace
    Country: Angola, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Burundi, Colombia, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Georgia, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Israel, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Uganda

    • Con excepción de Argelia, existían negociaciones formales o exploratorias en todos los conflictos africanos. A escala global, en el 73% de los conflictos armados existentes hay negociaciones abiertas.

    • Una vez completado el despliegue de las misiones de mantenimiento de la paz en Côte d'Ivoire, Somalia, Sudán y RD Congo, en estos cuatro países habrá unos 54.000 cascos azules.

    • Finalizaron sin éxito los intentos de negociación con la guerrilla ELN, en Colombia, y con el grupo maoísta CPI, en el estado de Andra Pradesh (India).

    • En Iraq se multiplicaron los contactos entre EEUU y el Gobierno iraquí con grupos de la resistencia.


    0 0

    Source: School for a Culture of Peace
    Country: Philippines, Georgia, India, Pakistan, Sudan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Burundi, Colombia, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Indonesia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Angola, Nigeria, Iraq, Israel, occupied Palestinian territory, Uganda


    - Con excepción de Argelia, existían negociaciones formales o exploratorias en todos los conflictos africanos. A escala global, en el 73% de los conflictos armados existentes hay negociaciones abiertas.
    - Una vez completado el despliegue de las misiones de mantenimiento de la paz en Côte d'Ivoire, Somalia, Sudán y RD Congo, en estos cuatro países habrá unos 54.000 cascos azules.

    - Finalizaron sin éxito los intentos de negociación con la guerrilla ELN, en Colombia, y con el grupo maoísta CPI, en el estado de Andra Pradesh (India).

    - En Iraq se multiplicaron los contactos entre EEUU y el Gobierno iraquí con grupos de la resistencia.

    En este apartado se analizan aquellos conflictos armados o conflictos no resueltos que han entrado en una fase de negociación formal, que están inmersos en un claro proceso de paz o que están explorando el inicio de unas negociaciones. De los 30 procesos analizados (dos menos que en el trimestre anterior), 12 corresponden al continente asiático y 12 al africano, en 26 hay negociaciones formales y en 4 se están explorando posibilidades. 18 negociaciones o exploraciones corresponden a conflictos armados y 12 a conflictos no resueltos. Durante el trimestre finalizaron sin éxito los intentos de negociación con la guerrilla ELN, en Colombia, y con el grupo maoísta CPI, en el estado de Andra Pradesh (India).

    3.1. Evolución de los procesos de paz

    Tabla 3.1. Evolución de las negociaciones al finalizar el segundo trimestre
    Bien (6) Con dificultades (14) Mal (6) En exploración (4)
    Filipinas (MILF)
    Georgia (Abjazia)
    India (DHD)
    India (NDFB)
    India-Pakistán
    Sudán (SPLA-NDA)
    Armenia-Azerbaiyán
    Burundi (FNL)
    Colombia (AUC)
    Congo
    Côte d'Ivoire
    Georgia (Osetia del Sur)
    India (NSCN-IM)
    India (ULFA)
    Indonesia (GAM)
    RD Congo (Kivu e Ituri)
    RPD Corea-EEUU
    Senegal (Casamance)
    Somalia
    Sri Lanka
    Angola (Cabinda)
    Filipinas (NPA)
    Myanmar
    Nigeria (Delta)
    Sáhara Occidental
    Sudán (SLA-JEM)
    Filipinas (escisión del MNLF)
    Iraq
    Israel-Palestina
    Uganda (LRA)
    (En cursiva se señalan los conflictos no resueltos y que no están en fase de lucha armada)


    África

    a) África Occidental

    En Côte d'Ivoire, y después de varios meses de tensiones, en abril se firmó en Pretoria (Sudáfrica) un inmediato alto el fuego entre el Gobierno y los tres grupos armados de oposición agrupados en la coalición Forces Nouvelles, tras unas negociaciones auspiciadas por el mandatario sudafricano, T. Mbeki. Dicho acuerdo contemplaba también el desarme y desmantelamiento de las milicias progubernamentales y de las Forces Nouvelles. Este fue el tercer acuerdo firmado entre las partes desde 2002, y permitió que dos de los nueve ministros de la coalición regresaran al Gobierno, que se hablara de impulsar el varias veces aplazado programa de desarme, desmovilización y reinserción de los combatientes y de una parte de las FFAA, bajo la supervisión de la misión de mantenimiento de la paz de la ONU (UNOCI), y permitir que en las próximas elecciones presidenciales pueda presentarse uno de los principales líderes de la oposición. El proceso de paz, no obstante, se vió enturbiado a principios de junio a causa de unos enfrentamientos entre diferentes comunidades, por la amenaza de la oposición con no presentarse a las elecciones si no pueden participar en su preparación, por las reticencias de las Forces Nouvelles a desarmarse y por las acusaciones de este grupo contra el Presidente, al señalar que estaría preparando la reanudación de los ataques sobre el norte del país. A finales de junio empezó en Pretoria una segunda fase de las negociaciones, en la que las partes acordaron el inicio definitivo del proceso de desarme de las milicias progubernamentales a partir del 20 de agosto. El acuerdo también prevé la aprobación por parte del Parlamento ivoriense de siete leyes propuestas por el equipo mediador. La ONU ha previsto incrementar la presencia de tropas internacionales de pacificación hasta llegar a unos 10.000 efectivos.

    En Nigeria volvieron a producirse serios enfrentamientos intercomunitarios en varios estados de la región del Delta del Níger, con el resultado de más de un centenar de víctimas. Como aspecto positivo, es de señalar que a finales de mayo el Gobierno designó al cura católico nigeriano M. Kukah, como mediador independiente para facilitar negociaciones entre la empresa transnacional Royal/Dutch/Shell y el grupo activista Movimiento para la Supervivencia de Gente Ogoni (MOSOP) y otros líderes ogoni. En Senegal, finalmente, una escisión del grupo armado de oposición MFDC asumió en junio la responsabilidad de unos ataques en la región de Casamance, por lo que no se ha logrado la pacificación definitiva de la región.

    b) Cuerno de África

    El proceso de paz de Somalia continuó pendiente del logro de un entorno de seguridad suficiente para que el conjunto del Gobierno Federal de Transición (GFT) pueda instalarse definitivamente en el país, ya sea en la capital o en otras ciudades. Mientras se negociaban estas condiciones de seguridad, se fue preparando el contingente africano de países de la IGAD que conformarán la misión de mantenimiento de la paz de la UA. La Liga Árabe se comprometió a aportar un contingente militar. Esta misión tuvo que sortear numerosos obstáculos, debido a limitaciones legales, a las divisiones en el seno del GNT respecto al cometido y composición de la misión, a la falta de fondos y a la inseguridad del país. No obstante, tres de los principales “señores de la guerra” de la capital acordaron formar una fuerza conjunta para restaurar la seguridad en dicha ciudad, iniciando un primer proceso de entrega de armas y de acantonamiento de sus milicias. En mayo, el Secretario General de la ONU nombró al antiguo Primer Ministro guineano, F. Lonseng Fall, como su Representante Especial para Somalia, y a mediados de junio, el GFT inició su traslado desde Nairobi a la ciudad somalí de Jowhar. El Gobierno, además, nombró a sus dos primeros embajadores (en Naciones Unidas y en China), aprobó su primer presupuesto, por un importe de 229 millones de euros y empezó unas conferencias de reconciliación en cada uno de los 93 distritos de Somalia. El Viceministro de Defensa anunció el restablecimiento de las FFAA en el país.

    (pdf* format - 80 KB)


    0 0

    Source: International Crisis Group
    Country: Afghanistan, Algeria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, China, Colombia, Côte d'Ivoire, Cyprus, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Fiji, Georgia, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, India, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Tajikistan, Thailand, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen, Zimbabwe

    August 2015 – Trends

    • Deteriorated situations

    Afghanistan, Burundi, Central African Republic, Colombia/Venezuela, Guatemala, Kashmir, Lebanon, Nepal, Yemen

    • Improved situations

    Guinea, South Sudan, Sri Lanka

    September 2015 – Watchlist

    • Conflict risk alerts

    Colombia/Venezuela, Guatemala, Iraq, Nepal, Yemen

    • Conflict resolution opportunities

      South Sudan


    0 0

    Source: International Crisis Group
    Country: Afghanistan, Algeria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, China, Colombia, Côte d'Ivoire, Cyprus, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, India, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Israel, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Libya, Madagascar, Mali, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Tajikistan, Thailand, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen, Zimbabwe

    September 2015 – Trends

    • Deteriorated situations
      Afghanistan, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Central African Republic, Mozambique, Somalia, Syria, Tajikistan, Turkey, Yemen

    • Improved situations
      Colombia, Guatemala, Macedonia

    October 2015 – Watchlist

    • Conflict risk alerts
      Afghanistan, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic

    • Conflict resolution opportunities
      Colombia


    0 0

    Source: International Crisis Group
    Country: Afghanistan, Algeria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, China, Colombia, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Cyprus, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Georgia, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, India, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Israel, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Libya, Madagascar, Mali, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Tajikistan, Thailand, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen, Zimbabwe

    October 2015 – Trends

    • Deteriorated situations
      Central African Republic, Israel/Palestine, Macedonia, Republic of Congo, South China Sea, Turkey

    • Improved situations
      Iran

    November 2015 – Watchlist
    - Conflict risk alerts
    Turkey

    • Conflict resolution opportunities

    0 0

    Source: Norwegian People's Aid
    Country: Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cambodia, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Georgia, India, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kyrgyzstan, Lao People's Democratic Republic (the), Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Niger, occupied Palestinian territory, Oman, Pakistan, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation, Senegal, Serbia, Somalia, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Tajikistan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Uzbekistan, Viet Nam, Western Sahara, World, Yemen, Zimbabwe

    Next week, Mozambique, formerly one of the world’s most heavily mined countries, will formally declare it has completed mine clearance on its territory, the 29th country to do so since the 1990s. This leaves 60 countries and territories still contaminated according to Clearing the Mines, a review of mine action programmes around the world published today by Norwegian People’s Aid. The report’s authors have calculated that by 2020 another 20 countries should have completed mine clearance and the urgent humanitarian threat removed from the other 40.

    Ukraine has been added to the global list of affected countries following new mine-laying in 2014 in the conflicts that erupted during the year. Also new to the list is Oman, which joined the Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention (APMBC) in 2014 and reported this year that mines may remain in the south of the country.

    Last year, programmes in 34 countries cleared a total of 200 square kilometres of mined area, equalling the previous annual record. Operations resulted in the destruction of more than 230,000 anti-personnel mines and 11,500 anti-vehicle mines. The world’s three largest international demining NGOs, HALO Trust, Mines Advisory Group, and Norwegian People’s Aid, were together responsible for 20% of mine clearance globally and the destruction of more than 67,000 anti-personnel mines (almost 30% of the total).

    But too many countries are falling behind their plans and commitments. Of the ten most contaminated parties to the APMBC (Afghanistan, Angola, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cambodia, Chad, Croatia, Iraq, Thailand, Turkey, and Zimbabwe), not one is on target to meet its clearance deadline set by international law. Turkey has cleared less than 1% of overall contamination more than 11 years after joining the APMBC. In the last five years, Thailand has released barely one-third of the projected amount.

    Among other contaminated countries, Ethiopia missed its clearance deadline of 1 June 2015 and is currently in serious violation of international law. Senegal did not report any clearance in 2014, but is still seeking a five-year extension to its Convention deadline that is to be debated next week. Total mined area cleared from the Falkland Islands so far represents 9% of contamination, far less than the 48% the United Kingdom had pledged to clear five years into its ten-year-long extension period.

    Success in mine action depends on targeted survey and clearance backed by political commitment and continued national and international funding. Clearing the Mines assesses the performance of mine action programmes worldwide, recommending corrective action to enhance efficiency and improve the protection of civilians.

    27.11.2015 |


    0 0

    Source: International Crisis Group
    Country: Afghanistan, Algeria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, China, Colombia, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Cyprus, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Georgia, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, India, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Israel, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Libya, Madagascar, Mali, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Tajikistan, Thailand, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen, Zimbabwe

    November 2015– Trends

    Deteriorated situations

    Bangladesh, France, Kosovo, Lebanon, Nepal, Syria, Turkey, Venezuela

    Improved situations

    Burkina Faso, Myanmar

    December 2015– Watchlist

    Conflict risk alerts

    Venezuela

    • Conflict resolution opportunities

    0 0

    Source: International Crisis Group
    Country: Afghanistan, Algeria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, China, China - Taiwan Province, Colombia, Côte d'Ivoire, Cyprus, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Ethiopia, Georgia, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, India, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Israel, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Somalia, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Tajikistan, Thailand, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), Western Sahara, World, Yemen, Zimbabwe

    December 2015 – Trends

    - Deteriorated situations

    Afghanistan, Burundi, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Niger

    - Improved situations

    January 2016 – Watchlist

    - Conflict risk alerts

    Burundi

    - Conflict resolution opportunities

    Libya


    0 0

    Source: International Crisis Group
    Country: Afghanistan, Algeria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, China, China - Taiwan Province, Colombia, Côte d'Ivoire, Cyprus, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Georgia, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, India, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Israel, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Mexico, Moldova, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Somalia, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Tajikistan, Thailand, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), Western Sahara, World, Yemen, Zimbabwe

    The month saw an intensification of Yemen’s war, amid heightened regional rivalries between Saudi Arabia and Iran complicating prospects for peace. Political tensions increased in Haiti, Guinea-Bissau and Moldova, where protests over endemic corruption and a lack of confidence in the government could escalate. In Africa, Boko Haram’s deadly attacks increased in northern Cameroon, and Burkina Faso was hit by an unprecedented terror attack. On the nuclear front, in East Asia, North Korea’s announcement that it had carried out a successful hydrogen bomb test was roundly condemned, while nuclear-related sanctions on Iran were rolled back in accordance with the July 2015 deal.


    0 0

    Source: International Crisis Group
    Country: Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, China, Colombia, Côte d'Ivoire, Cyprus, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Fiji, Georgia, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, India, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Tajikistan, Thailand, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), Western Sahara, World, Yemen, Zimbabwe

    The month saw conflict continue to rage in Turkey’s south east between Ankara and the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK), looking likely to further escalate in March. Afghanistan and Somalia both saw armed insurgencies capture new territories. In Africa, political tensions rose in Chad, Mozambique and Zimbabwe, while in Venezuela, deadlock between the opposition-held parliament and government has brought the country closer to political and economic implosion. In Asia, North Korea’s announcement of a satellite launch in violation of UN Security Council resolutions prompted international condemnation and calls for tough new sanctions. On a positive note, the coming month brings the possibility of a final agreement to end Colombia’s decades-old insurgency.


    0 0

    Source: International Crisis Group
    Country: Afghanistan, Algeria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, China, China - Taiwan Province, Colombia, Côte d'Ivoire, Cyprus, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Georgia, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, India, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Israel, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Mexico, Moldova, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Somalia, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Tajikistan, Thailand, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), Western Sahara, World, Yemen, Zimbabwe

    The month saw violent extremist movements, including the Islamic State (IS) and al-Qaeda-linked groups, carry out major deadly attacks in Turkey, Pakistan, Côte d’Ivoire, Tunisia and Belgium. In Libya, the arrival of Prime Minister Serraj in Tripoli despite warnings from multiple factions could lead to further destabilisation. Meanwhile in Central Africa, political violence rose in Burundi and could break out in Chad around the 10 April presidential election. Yemen, South Sudan and even Syria saw progress, of varying degrees, toward peace talks or implementation of agreements, and in Colombia the start of talks between the state and the National Liberation Army (ELN) could lead to the end of the 52-year-old conflict.

    In Libya, international recognition of the new UN-backed Government of National Accord without support from military factions or the Tobruk-based House of Representatives worsened tensions in an already fragmented security landscape, and Prime Minister Serraj’s arrival in Tripoli on 30 March could trigger worse violence in April. Meanwhile, an IS branch is reportedly gaining strength. To prevent further splintering of Libya’s armed groups and ensure that political and security developments support a negotiated peace, Crisis Group has called for a nationwide security track dialogue in parallel with the UN-guided political track. In Tunisia, at least 50 IS militants stormed Ben Guerdane, 30km from the Libyan border on 7 March, attempting to overwhelm key security installations.

    In Turkey, a car bomb attack on 13 March in Ankara saw 38 killed including two assailants. The Kurdistan Freedom Falcons (TAK), an ultra-radical Kurdish nationalist offshoot of the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK), claimed responsibility, saying it was an act of revenge for ongoing security operations against the PKK in south-eastern urban centres. As Crisis Group has long argued, the only way toward a durable solution is peace talks with the PKK alongside ensuring further democratic rights for Turkey’s Kurdish population.

    Elsewhere, violent extremist movements carried out major deadly attacks. In Pakistan, over 70 people were killed in a suicide bombing claimed by the Pakistani Taliban faction Jamaat-ul-Ahrar (JA) in Lahore on 27 March. In Belgium 32 people were killed by two IS-linked suicide bomb attacks at the main airport and on the Brussels metro on 22 March, while in Côte d’Ivoire on 13 March gunmen shot dead sixteen civilians in Grand-Bassam, 40km east of Abidjan, in an unprecedented terrorist attack claimed by al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM). Crisis Group’s Special Report Exploiting Disorder: al-Qaeda and the Islamic State examines how such extremist movements benefit from today’s deadliest crises and complicate efforts to end them.

    In Burundi, political violence worsened while international pressure on President Nkurunziza failed to stop government repression. There were deadly attacks on three officials including two from the ruling party and the assassination of two high-ranking army officers on the same day, pointing to dangerous divisions in the military. According to the UN, 474 people have been killed in political violence since April 2015, and over 250,000 Burundians have fled to neighbouring states. In Chad, mounting protests against President Déby’s regime and government repression could lead to serious political violence around the presidential election, scheduled for 10 April. Meanwhile, tensions between Morocco and the UN spiked after UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon referred to the “occupation” of Western Sahara during a visit to the region in early March.

    In Syria, Russia’s announcement that it would withdraw the “main part” of its assets that have conducted operations in the country since September 2015 strengthened the ongoing UN-brokered talks, which resumed on 14 March in Geneva. Since the “cessation of hostilities” that began on 27 February violence has decreased considerably, according to local sources, with the lowest monthly civilian death toll in four years. Meanwhile, in Yemen, the agreement between Saudi Arabia and the Huthis to halt hostilities along the Yemen-Saudi Arabia border in early March paved the way for commitments to a wider ceasefire and peace talks to start in April. Fighting continued, nevertheless, including between government forces and al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) in Aden and IS-linked attacks in the south.

    In South Sudan, amid a decline in fighting, April could see significant progress toward the formation of a transitional government of national unity, bringing the country a step closer toward implementation of the August 2015 peace deal. In Colombia, in a welcome step, the government and the National Liberation Army (ELN) announced on 30 March the opening of formal peace talks which, together with those nearing completion with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) in Havana, are the greatest opportunity to end 52 years of armed conflict.


    0 0

    Source: UN Human Rights Council
    Country: Afghanistan, Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burundi, Cambodia, Central African Republic, China, Colombia, Congo, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, France, Gambia, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Hungary, Iraq, Italy, Kenya, Libya, Malawi, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Poland, Russian Federation, South Africa, South Sudan, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Thailand, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkey, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen

    In a wide-ranging opening speech to the United Nations Human Rights Council in Geneva, UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Zeid Ra'ad al Hussein sheds a light on "preventable calamities" and worrying trends in human rights around the world, including detailed concerns about the situation in more than 50 countries

    Distinguished President of the Council,
    Director-General,
    Excellencies
    Colleagues and friends

    (Issued as received) When the Inter-American Commission announces it has to cut its personnel by forty percent – and when States have already withdrawn from it and the Inter-American Court; When States Parties have threatened to withdraw from the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court – and, even more recently, others threaten to leave the United Nations, or the European Court of Human Rights and the European Union;

    When those calling for departure have seemingly already fled in their minds from the urge to protect the world from the untold sorrow and miseries which twice swept it, and brought about the creation of many of these very institutions;

    When filthy abuse by politicians of the vulnerable is tolerated; when the laws – human rights law, refugee law, international humanitarian law – are increasingly violated, and when hospitals are bombed – but no one is punished;

    When human rights, the two words, are so rarely found in the world of finance and business, in its literature, in its lexicon – why? Because it is shameful to mention them?

    When working for the collective benefit of all people, everywhere is apparently losing its ardour, and features only in empty proclamations swelling with unjustified self-importance and selfishness – Then do we really still have an international community? When the threads forming it are being tugged away and the tapestry, our world, is unravelling? Or are there only fragmented communities of competing interests – strategic and commercial – operating behind a screen of feigned allegiance to laws and institutions?

    I think of a video clip I saw on the internet the other day, where the body of a young child, a young girl, with a face that is white with dust, nose bloodied, hair springing with life still – and her body crushed, inert as the rubble – dug out as she was from a bombed building in Syria, so reports said, just days ago.

    The poet Hafiz says:

    As pallid ghost appears Speak the epic of thy pain Please stop this, because this madness can be stopped.

    Mr President,

    As I speak before this 32nd session of the Human Rights Council, at which all of the 193 Member States of the United Nations are represented, the international community's familiar customs and procedures are much in evidence.

    And yet the workable space in which we function as one community – resolving disputes, coming to consensus – is under attack. The common sets of laws, the institutions - and deeper still, the values – which bind us together are buckling. And suffering most from this onslaught are our fellow human beings – your people – who bear the brunt of the resulting deprivation, misery, injustice, and bloodshed. I, and many others, seek your support.

    Hate is becoming mainstreamed. Walls – which tormented previous generations, and have never yielded any sustainable solution to any problem – are returning. Barriers of suspicion are rising, snaking through and between our societies – and they are killers. Clampdowns on public freedoms, and crackdowns on civil society activists and human rights defenders, are hacking away at the forces which uphold the healthy functioning of societies. Judicial institutions which act as checks on executive power are being dismantled. Towering inequalities are hollowing out the sense that there are common goods.

    These trends bleed nations of their innate resilience. They do not make them safe: they make them weaker. Piece by piece, these mutually reinforcing trends are shearing off the protections that maintain respect, enable development, and provide the only fragile basis for world peace. They are attacks on sanity. And they can be reversed.

    Mr President,

    This is a period of powerful lessons – if we choose to learn from them.

    We can build societies in which disputes can be peacefully resolved by impartial and effective institutions, and where people's right to development and other fundamental rights are respected.

    We can shore up the basic building blocks of co-existence and well-being, both within States and between them.

    Sound rule of law institutions, which offer the confidence of impartial justice, build confidence and strength. Equality: every individual must be clear in the knowledge that regardless of sex, race, ethnicity, opinions, belief, caste, age or sexual orientation, her equal rights are fully acknowledged. Trust can only accrue if government is transparent and accountable – and when people know they are entitled to contribute to all decisions in which they have a stake, there is greater social unity. When fundamental economic and social goods – such as education, clean water and adequate health-care – are viewed, correctly, as rights, resources are allocated with greater fairness and society as a whole is stronger. The freedoms of expression, association and belief must prevail, together with independent media, in order that people be fully informed and free to contribute ideas and experiences without fear of attack.

    These are powerful levers for development and peace. They are investments which pay instant and long-term benefits in maintaining peace, in maximising sustainable development, and in optimizing the well-being of each society and humanity as a whole. In contrast, the damage done by denial of human rights spills across borders and mutilates the destiny of generations to come. Human rights are not costly – they are priceless.

    Mr President,

    We are 7.4 billion human beings clinging to a small and fragile planet. And there is really only one way to ensure a good and sustainable future: ensure respect, resolve disputes, construct institutions that are sound and fair and share resources and opportunities equitably.

    The 2030 Agenda, which arises out of the Declaration on the Right to Development, is a practical, structured road-map for investing in human rights, including vital economic, social and cultural rights, and maintaining loyalty to the needs of humanity as a whole. These and other policies that benefit humanity are in the national interest of every State.

    The 2030 Agenda details the way forward to combat exploitation and exclusion, and to build more just and resilient societies that fulfill the rights of all – including women and others who frequently suffer discrimination. It may not be a perfect or entirely sufficient programme, but it constitutes a universal commitment by States to the absolutely vital work of prevention.

    At next month’s High Level Political Forum, we need member states and our civil society partners to push for real delivery on the Agenda’s promises, based on its core commitments to human rights. I also ask States to use their development aid more effectively, to promote the human rights goals that truly build development. Accountable, inclusive and transparent governance and rule of law institutions that are impartial and effective – these massively amplify development. And in the coming months and years, we have an opportunity to truly improve life for millions of people.

    My Office is dedicated to that goal. The objective of our scrutiny is to give States the benefit of detailed, fact-based analysis, and to use that analysis as the basis for cooperation programmes that assist States to improve their protection of human rights.

    In many situations, and especially when there are conflicting accounts, the independent, objective, and factual information that my Office provides can play an important role to prevent further violations. I very much regret the refusal by some countries to permit my staff to have access in order to monitor and report on events. I must emphasise that non-cooperation by Governments will not result in my Office remaining silent. On the contrary, it creates a presumption of major violations, and may deprive local and national actors of the opportunity to explain and provide information about events.

    In updating this Council at the September session, I may list a number of countries where engagement with or access for my Office is impeded.

    This morning, in the course of this update, I will outline some very pressing human rights concerns, which could have been prevented – and must now be redressed. To undertake that work, my recommendations are clear. In every situation of conflict, the principles of distinction, proportionality, precaution and necessity must be strictly observed, in line with international humanitarian law. I urge every State to fully comply with international human right norms and implement the recommendations of the human rights mechanisms and of my Office. All political detainees should be released, and reforms undertaken to ensure fair trials and an impartial and effective administration of justice. Independent national institutions and civil society organizations must be free to raise their voice.

    Freedoms of expression, assembly and association must be respected and wherever people are jailed for exercising these rights – and there are many – I urge the authorities to release them with immediate effect.

    The actions of the police, security forces and all other agents of the State must be in line with relevant human rights obligations and minimum standards. When reports suggest violations of human rights, I call on the authorities to conduct investigations to establish the facts, prosecute perpetrators and ensure redress for victims. Economic, social and cultural rights are vital, and their respect must include equitable access to resources, services and opportunities. Refugee law must also be respected, especially the principle of non-refoulement. And all forms of discrimination must be eradicated, to ensure that every member of society can freely make choices and participate in decisions.

    On a daily basis, we are witness to horrors of every kind around the world. I extend my condolences and respect to all victims of human rights violations, including the victims of conflict and those who suffer violations of their civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights. I also condemn with the greatest possible force the outrageous attacks by violent extremists on innocent people, chosen at random, or because of their presumed beliefs, or opinions, or – as we saw yesterday – their sexual orientation.

    Martin Luther King spoke of the deep shame reserved "for those who possess power without compassion, might without morality, and strength without sight". But he also pointed out that we can "re-dedicate ourselves to the long, and bitter, but beautiful, struggle for a new world."

    Mr President,

    Globally, many countries have distinguished themselves by their principled welcome to large numbers of desperate, often terrified and poverty-stricken migrants and refugees. They have provided assistance, enabled access to education and labour markets, and protected many vital human rights in line with their commitments under international law.

    Many other countries have not done so. And their failure to take in a fair share of the world’s most vulnerable is undermining the efforts of more responsible States. Across the board, we are seeing a strong trend that overturns international commitments, refuses basic humanity, and slams doors in the face of human beings in need.

    The only sustainable way to resolve today’s movements of people will be to improve human rights in countries of origin, and I strongly urge the members of this Council to embark on that work. But meanwhile, the countries of Europe must find a way to address the current migration crisis consistently and in a manner that respects the rights of the people concerned – including in the context of the EU-Turkey agreement.

    It is entirely possible to create well-functioning migration governance systems, even for large numbers of people, with fair and effective determination of individual protection needs. If European governments can remove hysteria and panic from the equation – and if all contribute to a solution – I am confident that they will be able to achieve this.

    Recently I have sent staff to key locations along the Central Mediterranean and Balkan migration routes. They have observed a worrying increase in detention of migrants in Europe, including in the “hotspots” – essentially vast mandatory confinement areas which have been set up in Greece and Italy. Even unaccompanied children are frequently placed in prison cells or centres ringed with barbed-wire. Detention is never in the best interests of the child – which must take primacy over immigration objectives. Alternatives to the detention of children must be developed, drawing on the solid examples of non-custodial, community-based and child-friendly good practices that we have seen in the region in past years.

    I also strongly recommended comprehensive collection of data by the EU on the detention of migrants in all Member States. These figures would, I fear, be very shocking.

    I deplore the widespread anti-migrant rhetoric that we have heard, spanning the length and breadth of the European continent. This fosters a climate of divisiveness, xenophobia and even – as in Bulgaria – vigilante violence.

    In contrast to these many deplorable failures of vision and humanity, a number of cities across Europe have responded commendably to the needs of vulnerable newcomers. I welcome the approach adopted by the Mayors of Lampedusa and Paris, alongside numerous other communities, many much smaller. With several European cities, such as Barcelona and Madrid, ready to relocate and resettle people, EU Member States need to make good on their commitments. In September 2015, they committed to relocate 160,000 people from Greece and Italy, but according to figures published last month fewer than 1,600 – less than 1% -- have actually been relocated.

    In south-east Turkey, I am alarmed by satellite imagery which indicates widespread destruction in the eastern area of the town of Nusaybin due to the use of heavy weapons. Hundreds of buildings have been damaged or destroyed, including extensive damage between 25 and 29 May. Last month, I requested that my staff be given access to the affected areas, in the context of multiple and contradictory reports of violations of international law and other human rights abuses. While I welcome the personal invitation by the Turkish government for me to visit the country, this invitation must first be extended to my staff so that a team from my Office can establish clarity about the facts. I remain acutely concerned about the harassment of civil society organisations and journalists.

    The rights of people still suffering from the protracted conflicts in the South Caucasus have long been a concern of my Office. We have received allegations of violations of international law in the context of the upsurge in hostilities along the line of contact in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict zone, especially in April. Significant efforts are needed to address the situation of displaced people. My Office is ready to assist in the collection of objective information on human rights needs in the affected areas.

    In several countries of central and south-eastern Europe, including Hungary, Poland and The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, I am concerned by challenges to the independence of rule of law institutions which provide an important check to executive overreach. Human rights defenders and civil society activists are under increasing pressure, indicating an almost region-wide narrowing of the democratic space, and we have observed multiple cases of harassment or persecution of journalists. In Poland, the European Commission has issued an opinion that is highly relevant to the regrettable constitutional crisis in the country, and I encourage the Government to cooperate under the EU’s Rule of law framework. I further encourage the authorities to benefit from the expertise of Poland’s highly respected Ombudsman organisation.

    In Azerbaijan, I welcome recent releases of civil society actors and journalists. I invite the authorities to use this momentum to undertake meaningful steps towards widening space for civil society and safeguarding freedom of expression, including improving the justice system and the legal framework regulating NGO activities. My Office is ready to further advance a constructive dialogue with the Government with a view to addressing these issues.

    This week, a number of amendments to the Russian Federation’s law on foreign agents come into force. More than 90 NGOs are now listed as "foreign agents” a designation which implies that their activities are “political”. I continue to urge the authorities to follow up on recommendations from UN human rights mechanisms and to amend this law in line with Russia’s international human rights obligations.

    In Ukraine, we are concerned about the increasing violations to the ceasefire and the presence of heavy weaponry on both sides of the contact line. Only full implementation of the Minsk Agreements by all parties can protect civilians and restore hope for a lasting peace. My Office has access to detention facilities in areas under the control of the Government and there has been some improvement in conditions, and in terms of specific individual cases. But this access has not been possible in areas controlled by armed groups, leading to an assumption that allegations of very severe conditions may be accurate. We continue to receive reports of torture, arbitrary deprivation of liberty, and sexual and gender based violence linked to the conflict on both sides of the contact line. In areas controlled by the armed groups, we deplore the continued collapse of rule of law and severe restrictions on freedoms of opinion, expression, association and assembly. ASG Simonovic has recently completed a mission to Ukraine and will brief the Council during this session.

    I welcome the continued search by many States for innovative, human rights-based approaches to challenges, including economic, social and cultural rights. Last week Switzerland held a referendum to consider a guaranteed basic income. The vote was negative, but in other countries, such as Brazil, Finland, Italy and the Netherlands, local and national governments are experimenting with new ways to approach social protection and equal opportunities using some form of basic income.

    Mr President,

    In many parts of the Middle East and North Africa, the life-forces of society – which are the freedom and hopes of the people – are crushed by repression, conflict or violent anarchy. Torture, summary execution and arbitrary arrests are assaults on the people's security, not measures to protect security. It is a mistake to imagine that attacking the people’s rights makes them any safer or more content.

    The antidote to the savagery of violent extremism is greater rule of law. The best way to fight terrorism, and to stabilize the region, is to push back against discrimination; corruption; poor governance; failures of policing and justice; inequality; the denial of public freedoms, and other drivers of radicalization.

    Mr President,

    The disaster of Syria continues to deepen. So disturbed are we by the Inferno that Syria has become that to brief, month after month, this gathering or other bodies has become grotesque in itself. Collecting and analysing information so appalling, and reporting on it, is intended to serve action. But when it simply piles up and then dissipates into the corridors of power, we are shaken, feeling as I'm sure many around the world feel, almost helpless in this horror.

    Torture, arbitrary detention, enforced disappearances, forced evictions and the destruction of schools and entire neighbourhoods continue unabated. Hospitals are attacked, apparently deliberately: last week, in Aleppo, three medical centres hit in a single day – one, a paediatric centre, for the second time. Women and girls in particular, and minorities, are abused by twisted fanatics with a dehumanising sadism that is part of no religion. Over half a million people are trapped in sieges by government forces or armed groups, and are forced to scavenge for their basic needs – in some cases, since 2012. In yet another atrocity, on Friday the people of Daraya were hit by multiple air and ground attacks – just hours after aid made it through to them, for the first time in four years. When the reckoning is taken, all global decision-makers will find their legacy has been forever damaged by their failure to take decisive action to end this terrible, and entirely preventable, conflict. The serious and systematic crimes that are being inflicted daily on the people of Syria profoundly dishonour all those responsible.

    In Iraq, I am acutely concerned about the situation of tens of thousands of civilians who currently remain trapped inside Fallujah, and I refer you to my public communications on this topic earlier this month. I have urged the authorities to take immediate steps to redress the situation regarding people fleeing the outskirts of the city. I welcome the announcement last week that the Prime Minister will appoint a committee to investigate all allegations of violations committed against these displaced people, and I trust that this investigation will be truly consequential. I also commend the statement by Ayatollah al-Sistani urging security forces to protect the lives of civilians. The country must avoid further divisions or violence along sectarian lines, lest it implode completely.

    I am also profoundly concerned about the suffering of the people of Yemen. The armed conflict that began more than a year ago has taken a terrible toll on civilians, with 9,700 civilian casualties documented by my Office. The humanitarian situation is disastrous and continues to worsen. More than 21 million Yemenis – 80% of the population – need basic assistance, 2.8 million people have been forced to leave their homes. Humanitarian aid is frequently obstructed by the parties to the conflict and limited by funding difficulties. In September, I will be submitting a comprehensive report on human rights violations in Yemen and the progress made by the national commission of investigation. I strongly urge all parties to the conflict to abide by their obligations under international humanitarian law, in particular concerning the protection of civilians. The delivery of humanitarian aid must be ensured in all conflict zones and besieged areas.

    The occupation of Palestinian territory by Israel entered its 49th year last week. Tensions remain high across the Occupied Palestinian Territory and in Israel, and the risk of a further sudden escalation in violence remains very real. Violence is among the many consequences of this prolonged oppression, including and inexcusably against civilians on both sides. Both sides have seen civilians attacked recently, and I deplore those actions. The reactions of the Israeli authorities – in particular, instances of excessive use of force – have also been a cause for concern. I have reminded the Israeli Government of its obligations under international human rights and humanitarian law on a number of occasions. The increase in detention of Palestinians this year, particularly in administrative detention without trial, is another serious concern. At the end of April there were almost 700 Palestinian administrative detainees, more than double the figure at the end of September 2015 and the highest number since June 2008. Over 400 Palestinian children are currently detained in Israeli prisons, among them 13 who are in administrative detention – again, the highest figure since public records began in 2008. I once again join the call by a number of Treaty Bodies for the practice of administrative detention by Israel to be abolished.

    The situation in Gaza is untenable, with the continuing illegal blockade impeding reconstruction and basic services, and bleeding the people of hope. Arbitrary and often violent enforcement of the so-called "Access Restricted Areas" along the land and sea borders of Gaza not only obstructs access by Gazans to their livelihoods, but also results in deaths and injuries. So far this year, 73 fishermen have been arrested and detained by Israeli security forces – the same number as for all of 2015. Recent skirmishes along the border are a warning signal that another escalation of hostilities is a very real prospect unless there is real improvement for the people of Gaza.

    Libya continues to be beset by violence and impunity, and my Office continues to document violations and abuses by all parties. Civilians have been attacked, killed, and abducted on account of their origins, religion, or political views and all parties have used heavy weaponry in residential areas without regard for civilian life. The main hospital of Benghazi, the country’s second-largest city, came under repeated fire throughout the month of May, and two weeks ago shells damaged the intensive care unit. Thousands of people continue to languish in detention centres controlled by various armed brigades, where my staff have documented extremely dire conditions. Human rights defenders and journalists have been attacked or abducted.

    We have also received disturbing reports of many migrants in Libya being subjected to prolonged arbitrary detention; attacks and unlawful killings; torture and other ill-treatment; sexual violence; and abduction for ransom. On a visit to one centre in which migrants were detained, UN staff found dozens of people crammed into storage rooms without space to lie down. All cooperation measures that are taking place between the European Union and Libyan authorities on migration and border management must only be carried out in full respect for the human rights of the people involved. Such cooperation should not, for example, facilitate migrants being sent back to face arbitrary detention in centres where such abuses are rampant.

    I remain acutely concerned about the actions by violent extremists in Egypt, as well as by the shrinking democratic space, including constant harassment of civil society organizations and human rights defenders. Measures being employed to restrict freedom of peaceful assembly and freedom of expression include excessive use of force by security forces, arbitrary arrests and detention. The legislation governing peaceful assembly is excessively restrictive. Crackdowns breed grievance and rage, and feed cycles of violence. I urge the authorities to reflect on the long-term implications of their policies.

    At least 250 people in Bahrain have reportedly been stripped of their citizenship by the Government because of their alleged disloyalty to the interests of the Kingdom. In addition to these severe restrictions on freedom of expression, which contravene Bahrain’s international human rights obligations, an indefinite ban on gatherings in the capital has been in place since 2013. Dozens of people – including minors – have been prosecuted for participating in protests. Repression will not eliminate people’s grievances; it will increase them.

    In Mauritania, there has been considerable progress on the issue of slavery in recent years, although much work remains to be done. My Office in Mauritania will continue to work with the Government and civil society to further human rights through constructive dialogue, including on the right to a fair trial.

    Mr President,

    New waves of attacks by violent extremist groups in Mali have targeted civilians, the armed forces and UN peacekeepers; MINUSMA has become the most deadly of all current peacekeeping missions. In addition to the toll of civilian casualties, the activities of extremist groups are also denying the population access to basic services, as they obstruct the work of the authorities and aid agencies. Schools have closed in some areas due to fear that they will be attacked, because these groups oppose their values. It is essential that all security forces conduct counter terrorism operations in line with international human rights standards – avoiding, in particular, arbitrary arrests, arbitrary detention and use of excessive force. Such methods are contrary to international law and create widespread resentment, fuelling greater recruitment by extremist groups.

    In Burundi, killings, disappearances and arbitrary arrests by agents of the State or associated militia continue throughout the country and the political and security situation is tense and highly volatile. Almost on a daily basis, grenades explode indiscriminately in the centre of Bujumbura, or are aimed at police and military targets. In recent weeks military officers from the defunct Armed Forces of Burundi, known as ex-FAB, have also been targeted, and I am concerned that some of these killings may be ethnic-based. There are also deeply disturbing allegations of ethnic-based hate speech against Tutsis during a large public rally organised two weeks ago in the south of the country by the Imbonerakure militia. These allegations of speech amounting to incitement to violence must be urgently addressed.

    As this Council is aware, the independent experts whom you mandated to conduct investigations travelled to Burundi in March. Their Secretariat was deployed to Burundi in May. Its six human rights officers and one security officer are conducting missions to Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo this month to interview refugees. The second mission of the independent experts is planned for this week, and they are due to report to the Council in September. I note also that the International Criminal Court recently announced it will open a preliminary examination into violence in Burundi.

    The formation of a transitional government of national unity offers hope, at last, for the people of South Sudan. However, violence has continued in some areas – particularly in Greater Equatoria and Greater Bahr el Ghazal, which were not previously affected – and restrictions imposed on humanitarian access remain a significant problem. I trust that there will be no further delays in establishing the hybrid criminal court and other key institutions mandated by the peace agreement. The appalling violence that the country has suffered has roots in past failures of accountability, and there must now be a clear and determined commitment to hold perpetrators to account. I am hopeful that this session's enhanced interactive dialogue will contribute to that accountability and reconciliation, and that the new Commission on Human Rights on South Sudan will provide much-needed support.

    In Sudan, the ongoing conflict in the Jebel Marra area of Darfur, the fighting in Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile States and inter-tribal clashes continue to result in serious violations of human rights and international humanitarian law, and large-scale displacement of civilians. Accountability and respect for human rights remain the only realistic hope for a sustainable end to this protracted conflict. I call on the Government to cooperate with the investigation and prosecution processes laid out in the Doha Document for Peace in Darfur, as well as with the work of the International Criminal Court pursuant to Security Council resolution 1593.

    The peaceful transfer of power to the Central African Republic's newly elected President, in March, was an important milestone. President Touadera's government has no representative of any armed group, breaking with past practises and sending a courageous message that using violence will not lead to political reward. Nevertheless, the new government faces enormous challenges ahead and will need strong support to deliver effective reforms that can secure a path away from conflict and towards sustainable peace, respect for human rights and development. I encourage steps towards the disarmament of armed groups, the protection of civilians who remain threatened, and an end to impunity for human rights violations, to help reconcile divided communities.

    Mozambique, which has been considered an African success story in recent years, shows signs of backsliding into violence. The resumption of an armed confrontation between Renamo’s armed wing and the national army has led to the displacement of people in affected areas. Abductions, summary executions, and ill-treatment and threats to human rights defenders and journalists have been reported. I urge the Government to do its utmost to hold perpetrators to account, and to address the corruption that deprives so many of their economic and social rights.

    Gambia's President reportedly made statements vilifying and threatening the Mandinka ethnic group at a political rally ten days ago. His speech included comparisons to animals and death threats to both the Mandinka and to political opponents. This appalling rhetoric may constitute incitement to violence under the terms of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Furthermore, in the run-up to the Presidential elections scheduled for December, peaceful demonstrations have met with severe actions by police. I call on the President and the Government to unreservedly guarantee the rights of all the people of the Gambia.

    In the Republic of the Congo, I am concerned about recent reports of human rights violations in the Pool region, following an alleged militia attack on a police office. This week, with the Government's agreement, I have deployed a six-week mission to assess the human rights situation, with particular attention to the affected area, and to make appropriate recommendations on possibilities for strengthening OHCHR's engagement in the country.

    In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, there has been a sharp reduction in the democratic space since the changes to the electoral law of January 2015, including arbitrary arrests and detention; the prohibition or disruption of numerous meetings and demonstrations by the opposition or civil society; and ill-treatment of protestors. Last month police fired on demonstrators in North Kivu province, and subsequent related protests in Kinshasa also resulted in violence. I remind the authorities that all Congolese have a right to participate in the public affairs of their country.

    I am also concerned about heightened tension in Kenya, where elections will take place next year. Fears have been raised by the excessive use of force by police in response to protests over alleged bias by the election commission; by the widespread use of speech tantamount to incitement to violence; and by some violence on the part of protestors. Kenya's people, who endured the massive post-election bloodshed and destruction of eight years ago, deserve better. As in every country, I urge the authorities to respect the right to peaceful assembly and to investigate and prosecute the use of excessive force. I also urge protesters to remain peaceful.

    The Commission of Inquiry on Eritrea mandated by this Council has found reasonable grounds to conclude that widespread and systematic crimes against humanity have been committed since 1991. My Office is ready to support the Government in implementing the Commission's recommendations. I have noted recent developments in the country, including the release of some Djiboutian prisoners of war as well as reports of the release of Eritrean ex-combatants, and I encourage the Government to continue along this path and release other political prisoners.

    The government in Nigeria has made progress in addressing insecurity linked to the operations of Boko Haram. I encourage the government to address issues highlighted by militancy in the Niger Delta, including dislocation and environmental damage resulting from business activity. Attacks against sedentary communities by Fulani herdsmen should also be addressed. The perception of exclusion and discrimination in the South, which is articulated by the Indigenous People of Biafra, is also of concern. As the country painfully learned from its initial response to Boko Haram, high-handed and militaristic responses to grievances may exacerbate situations and cement intractable problems into place. I welcome unreservedly the government's anti-corruption focus, and I hope national anti-corruption bodies will be rapidly strengthened, to enhance their transparency and impartiality.

    Mr President,

    In Afghanistan, civilian casualties continue to rise. Earlier this year, UNAMA’s Human Rights Unit documented a 2% increase, and almost one third of the victims were children. UNAMA is also reporting numerous attacks across the country targeting judges, prosecutors and judicial staff, with the Taliban claiming responsibility for many of these incidents. I deplore this continuing carnage, and demand that all attacks against civilians immediately cease.

    Regarding the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, where very serious human rights concerns persist, my Office is working to implement Resolution 31/18, which mandates the establishment of a group of independent experts, in order to recommend mechanisms for accountability, truth and justice for the victims of possible crimes against humanity. I continue to believe that dialogue with the Government is also essential, to encourage reform and cooperation. In April, the Government submitted reports to CEDAW and CRC. I welcome this as an indication of its willingness to cooperate with international human rights mechanisms, and I renew my offer of technical cooperation.

    I am very concerned about the dramatically increased number of brutal murders in Bangladesh that target freethinkers, liberals, religious minorities and LGBT activists. I note recent reports of police arrests, and I urge that investigating and prosecuting the perpetrators of these vicious crimes be made a priority, with full respect for human rights. I also urge all government officials and political and religious leaders to unequivocally condemn these attacks on freedom, and to do more to protect affected groups.

    In China, I have repeatedly noted my concern regarding the detention and interrogation of lawyers in connection with their work, as well as harassment and intimidation of Government critics and NGO workers. I am concerned that legislation on NGOs which is due to come into effect next January will further shrink the space available for civil society. Following last year's wave of arrests, at least 24 individuals have reportedly been charged with crimes, including subversion, incitement to subversion and assembly to disturb social order, and I understand that by mid-August, judicial authorities will decide whether or not to proceed with their prosecution. I call on the authorities to reconsider these proceedings and to release all individuals who have been detained in the context of legitimate work and activism, including the ten activists arrested in recent days.

    In Cambodia, recent arrests of opposition members, officials of the National Election Committee and members of civil society indicate a drastic and deplorable narrowing of the democratic space. This will not help to create an environment conducive to credible elections in 2017 and 2018.

    I remain concerned about the shrinking democratic space in the Maldives. Recent events once again raise significant fair trial issues. I am troubled by the application of terrorism-related charges against opposition leaders, and a number of new rules which have negative impact on fundamental freedoms. The access given to my Office by the Government is a positive signal that the authorities are open to discussion, and I am hopeful that we will be able to assist the Government to embark on institutional and legislative reform.

    In Thailand, the authorities have scheduled a referendum in August so that the public can determine whether or not to support the draft constitution. Paradoxically, they have also limited dialogue on the topic. People who have posted critical comments on the draft constitution have been detained and charged with “sedition”. The people of Thailand have a right to discuss – and to criticise – decisions about their country, and free, fair and dynamic public debate on the draft constitution is vital if the country is to return to sustainable democracy. I remain concerned about the increasing use of military courts to try civilians. I welcome the decision last month to enact the Prevention and Suppression of Torture and Enforced Disappearance Act and to ratify the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance. I trust these commitments will be put into effect as a matter of priority.

    I remind the incoming President of the Philippines that international law, which is binding on his administration, requires him to protect the rights of all his people, including journalists, civil society activists and human rights defenders who expose malfeasance. Criticism of people in power is not a crime. However, incitement to violence, and extra-judicial assassination, are crimes and are prohibited under multiple conventions to which the Philippines has acceeded. The people of his country have a right to the rule of law. The offer of bounties and other rewards for murder by vigilantes, and his encouragement of extrajudicial killings by security forces, are massive and damaging steps backwards which could lead to widespread violence and chaos. I urge the Government to reconsider such initiatives, and to refrain from its plans to reintroduce the death penalty, in a country which has been a leading force in the campaign to end the practise.

    In Papua New Guinea, longstanding protests escalated last week when police used excessive force, including live ammunition, against demonstrators. I welcome announcements by the Prime Minister and police that investigations will be set up, and I trust these will be independent and result in appropriate accountability. Police and security forces must embody the rule of law – or tarnish the reputation and legitimacy of the State among its people.

    In Sri Lanka, the government’s efforts to implement its commitments in Resolution 30/1 will require a comprehensive strategy on transitional justice that enables it to pursue different processes in a coordinated, integrated and appropriately sequenced manner. This will require the inclusive and meaningful engagement of all Sri Lankans. I will present an oral update later in the session.

    In Myanmar, the formation of a civilian Government in March represents a watershed moment in the continuing transition to democracy. The President and State Counsellor have set a reformist agenda focused on national reconciliation, peace, democratic reforms and development. Complex and wide-ranging human rights challenges remain, but they are not intractable. My Office stands ready to support the Government in addressing these challenges, which will be key to Myanmar's transformation,. As requested by this Council, on 29 June I will present my report on the human rights situation of Rohingya Muslims and other minorities in Myanmar.

    Mr President,

    The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights is an important strategic partner and inspiration for the United Nations system, and a vital human rights actor within the region. The financial crisis that it faces is alarming. I call on Member States from the Americas, who so constructively engage with the Human Rights Council, to also come out in defence of their regional human rights system through regular financial contributions.

    Mr President,

    I share the concern of many partners across the Americas regarding the very high incidence of gun violence and gun-related deaths. According to UNODC, the Americas have by far the highest rate of intentional homicide of any region in the world. Many of these crimes can be linked to organised criminal gangs, which also drive corruption of the judiciary and other institutions.

    In El Salvador, violence has risen steadily and, last year it had by far the highest murder rate of any country in the world not at war. Pervasive violence has forced thousands of people to migrate, mainly to the US, including unaccompanied children who fear they will be killed if they refuse to enrol in gangs. While the Government has launched a comprehensive “Plan for a Safe El Salvador” that included accountability and work to rehabilitate former gang members following prison sentences, more recently much harder-line security measures have been put forward. Recent allegations of extra-judicial killings by death squads are intolerable and are likely to fuel even greater violence.

    I urge firm action to increase public security in all the affected countries, with a focus on the respect of human rights and on strengthening the capacity of rule of law institutions.

    Regarding the situation in Venezuela, my Office shares many of the concerns of the Organization of American States, as well as its conviction that a solution to the current critical situation cannot be imposed from outside but must come from Venezuelans. We urge the Government and opposition to work towards this end, refraining from violence and hate speech, and in full respect of all international human rights norms. I am encouraged to see that the region is now engaging in support of Venezuela, and I offer the experience of my Office in ensuring independent and objective human rights monitoring and reporting, as well as support for the implementation of all human rights recommendations.

    In Guatemala, I welcome the launch of a national dialogue on justice reform in response to numerous recommendations by my Office regarding judicial independence, access to justice and institutional strengthening. I hope this will be a decisive turning point in the fight against impunity and corruption, and that it will result in comprehensive reform to guarantee a fully independent and effective judiciary. As part of the Technical Secretariat of this dialogue, my Office has been closely involved in many aspects of its work, and in the context of discussion about recognising indigenous jurisdiction over legal matters, our staff have held meetings throughout the country with indigenous communities to foster their participation.

    Haiti still does not have a constitutional President, and this lack of stable governance structures is impeding action on a wide range of crucial human rights issues. I take note of the Verification and Evaluation Commission’s recent report and invite all actors to work together to ensure a swift return to constitutional order. Six years after the 2010 earthquake, more than 60,000 people remain displaced and are urgently in need of sustainable solutions. The fate of Haitians and people of Haitian descent deported from the Dominican Republic is also of concern. Other vital human rights issues include the cruel and degrading conditions in detention centres and prisons, and the exploitation of children as domestic workers. Cholera remains a serious issue with the authorities recording more than 9000 deaths since 2010. Member States and, especially, members of the Security Council need to consider what can or should be done to deal with the tragic consequences of the cholera epidemic for Haitians.

    I welcome the historic ruling two weeks ago in Argentina regarding Operation Condor, a covert pact in the 1970s between military dictatorships in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay to hunt down and murder political activists. Fourteen former military officials from Argentina and Uruguay were found guilty of crimes and human rights violations, including torture. This landmark of accountability will, I hope, bring a measure of peace to the families of the countless victims.

    The greatest threat to the dividends of peace in Colombia is the risk that violence and human rights violations will be generated by struggles for control of illicit coca growing and illegal mining, following demobilisation. This is a trend that my office in Colombia is already observing. I urge the international community to invest with Colombia to transform these areas into productive economies that will improve the human rights situation and sustain peace.

    In the United States of America, although federal civil rights legislation has had undeniable positive impact, many African Americans in particular struggle to achieve their rights to full equality. Especially when they are poor – as they disproportionately are – African Americans are more likely to be exposed to violence and crime, less likely to achieve a decent education and will have fewer employment opportunities, receive less adequate health care and face more violent interactions with the police. There is a need for much more action to address structural racial discrimination in the country. Accountability and justice must be upheld in cases of excessive use of force by law enforcement officials. I am also concerned about the findings by the Working Group on People of African Descent that voter ID laws have discriminatory impact on minorities.

    As the coordinator of the International Decade for People of African Descent, I am concerned about the continuing low political representation of Afro-descendants in Latin America and the Caribbean. There are around 150 million people of African descent in the region, amounting to about 30 percent of the population. They make up more than half the population of Brazil and well over ten percent of the population of Cuba, to take two examples. But their representation in high levels of government, including Ministerial Cabinets, is far lower.

    Representation matters. This deficit of representation at the summit of power affects all of society: parliaments, workplaces in the public and the private sectors, schools, law courts, the media – all of them places in which the voices of Afro-descendants are given too little weight. The voices, the choices, the experiences and the faces of Afro-descendants need to be better reflected in government. I urge these and other States to take action to reflect the diversity of their population in decision making bodies, including consideration of affirmative action policies.

    Mr President,

    The state of implementation of resolution 68/268 on treaty body strengthening is globally positive. The treaty body system is already making strides towards greater efficiency and effectiveness, as attested by the notable increase in State party reviews, examinations of individual communications and field visits. The capacity-building programme which the resolution called for has been established by my Office, and I encourage States to make use of it. Looking ahead, the Secretary General will soon submit to the General Assembly a first report under resolution 68/268. It remains clear that the ever-growing treaty body system still requires sustained support and attention in the process leading towards the 2020 review.

    Mr President,

    As the world learned very recently from Ebola, major health emergencies are also human rights crises. The Zika epidemic continues to grow, with 60 countries worldwide now reporting cases – and there is an urgent need for a strong preventive and human rights-based approach in every one of those countries, as well as regionally and globally. Zika appears to disproportionately affect poor people, who live in areas with inadequate sanitation and whose homes and workplaces are less likely to be air-conditioned and mosquito-free. That must not mean that decision-makers downplay this epidemic. I urge adequate preventive measures, include the allocation of funds, as well as full respect for the human rights of all those affected. Disease is inevitable, but it is within our capability to prevent and reverse epidemics and pandemics. Indeed, it is our urgent duty.

    Mr President,

    Today is International Albinism Awareness Day, and I would like to stress my appreciation for this Council's work to address the terrible problems faced by people with albinism – including the appointment of the first Independent Expert. I am glad to note that Malawi has adopted a plan of action to address attacks against persons with albinism. Tanzania has recently appointed, for the first time, a person with albinism as a Deputy Minister. In Malawi and South Africa, organisations of traditional healers have publicly dismissed the myths that body parts of persons with albinism can be used to make traditional medicine. These are significant steps, but the gruesome suffering that is inflicted on people with albinism will require much greater focus and support from many actors.

    Mr President,

    I have listed many preventable calamities, which inflict unnecessary suffering on many people. I have also suggested many of the tools which can roll back those forces and revive the resilience and unity of societies around the world. Equality. Dignity. Participation. Respect. Conflict can be prevented, and peace, security and development can be strengthened or rebuilt, brick by brick. Respect for human rights offers States a path towards greater stability, not less. And assistance in establishing that path is what my Office, in all humility, offers. We shed light on protection gaps in order to help States repair them. I urge you to assist our work, and to avail yourselves of the help we offer. Despite the often terrible trends that I have outlined in this discussion, I firmly believe that it is not yet too late to act.

    Thank you.

    For more information and media requests, please contact please contact Rupert Colville (+41 22 917 9767 /rcolville@ohchr.org) or Ravina Shamdasani (+41 22 917 9169 / rshamdasani@ohchr.org) or Cécile Pouilly (+41 22 917 9310 / cpouilly@ohchr.org)

    For use of the information media; not an official record

    HC16/047E


    0 0

    Source: International Crisis Group
    Country: Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, China, Colombia, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Cyprus, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Georgia, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, India, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Israel, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Mexico, Moldova, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Tajikistan, Thailand, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Uzbekistan, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen, Zimbabwe

    Global Overview – Trends and Outlook

    While an upsurge of crises continued to test the international order, amid growing mass displacement and the spread of transnational terrorism, the UK's divisive vote on 23 June in favour of leaving the European Union brought a new dimension to global political and economic uncertainty. Jean-Marie Guéhenno, President & CEO of the International Crisis Group, said: “the Brexit crisis increases the risk of an inward-looking EU consumed with sorting out its own problems at a time when the world needs a Europe that is globally engaged".

    The month saw security deteriorate in several countries in Africa. In South Sudan fighting escalated and the peace deal threatened to unravel, while Boko Haram increased deadly attacks in Niger. Insecurity also rose in Nigeria’s Niger Delta where militants fighting for a greater share of the region’s oil revenues stepped up attacks on oil and gas facilities, and communal and criminal violence spiked in the Central African Republic. In Turkey, a terrorist attack believed to be the work of Islamic State killed more than 40 people on 28 June. In a significant step forward, Colombia’s government and Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) signed agreements bringing the 52-year armed conflict closer to an end.

    In South Sudan, fighting erupted in several places and conflict parties failed to make progress in implementing the peace deal signed in August 2015, instead appearing to prepare for a return to war. Forces allied to the former rebels, the Sudan People’s Liberation Army-In Opposition led by Vice President Riek Machar, launched attacks mid-month to demand places in the planned army integration or disarmament processes. Crisis Group has called on the peace guarantors to act urgently, ahead of the African Union summit on 10-18 July, to salvage the agreement and prevent the country from returning to full-scale war.

    Meanwhile, in West Africa, armed violence in Nigeria’s oil-rich Niger Delta worsened and threatened to spread, while Boko Haram insurgents in the north east continued to attack security forces and civilians. These crises, alongside the killing of about 59 people by Fulani herdsmen on 18-19 June, painted a picture of deepening insecurity across the country. As Crisis Group argued in a new report “The Challenge of Military Reform”, if the government is to defend its citizens it needs to take action including an overhaul of the defence sector, drastically improving leadership, oversight and administration.

    Niger also suffered deadly attacks by Boko Haram in south-eastern Diffa region on the border with Nigeria. On 3 June insurgents overran Bosso town on Lake Chad, killing 26 soldiers. Similar attacks were reported on 9 and 16 June against an army-held town and barracks. In the Central African Republic, violence spiked in several parts of the country in the first major deterioration in security since a newly elected government took office in April. In the capital, Bangui, clashes between Muslims and Christians on 11 June left four dead, and fighting hit the north west.

    In Turkey a gun and suicide bomb attack at Istanbul’s Ataturk airport on 28 June killed 44 people and injured over 200. The government said it believed Islamic State (IS) was responsible, with official sources reporting that the three attackers were from Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Russia’s North Caucasus. The attack comes as the government continued its clampdown against domestic IS networks and stepped up measures to prevent IS rocket attacks from Syria and seal off a 70km stretch of the border. Meanwhile clashes between the Kurdish PKK insurgency and Turkey’s security forces continued in the south east, with fighting increasingly moving from urban to rural areas.

    On a positive note, the Colombian government and FARC signed agreements on the “end of conflict” on 23 June, providing the strongest assurance yet that the 52-year conflict is finally coming to a close. The agreements spell out how the ceasefire and cessation of hostilities will work, as well as how FARC guerillas will put down their arms and transition to civilian life. The parties also agreed on how to hold a referendum to approve the final peace deal. Crisis Group commended the work of both delegations and those involved in the negotiations, and applauded the inclusion of victims in the talks.


    0 0

    Source: School for a Culture of Peace
    Country: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Colombia, Cyprus, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, India, Iraq, Israel, Kenya, Lebanon, Libya, Mali, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen

    Executive Summary

    Alert 2016! Report on conflicts, human rights and peacebuilding is a yearbook providing an analysis of the state of the world in terms of conflict and peacebuilding from four perspectives: armed conflicts, socio-political crises, peace processes and gender, peace and security.

    By analysing the most significant events in 2015 and the nature, causes, dynamics, actors and consequences of the main flashpoints of armed conflict and sociopolitical crisis throughout the world, we are able to offer a regional comparison and identify global trends, making it possible to highlight areas of risk and provide early warnings for the future. Similarly, the report also identifies opportunities for peacebuilding and for reducing, preventing and resolving conflicts. In both cases, one of the main aims of this report is to place data, analyses and the identified warning signs and opportunities for peace in the hands of those actors responsible for making policy decisions or those who participate in peacefully resolving conflicts or in raising political, media and academic awareness of the many situations of political and social violence taking place around the world.
    As regards methodology, the report is largely produced on the basis of the qualitative analysis of studies and data provided by numerous sources –the United Nations, international bodies, research centres, media outlets and NGOs, among others– as well as experience drawn from research on the ground.
    Some of the most important conclusions and information contained in the report include:

    • Thirty-five armed conflicts were reported in 2015, most of them in Africa (13) and Asia (12), followed by the Middle East (six), Europe (three) and the Americas (one).

    • Two new armed conflicts were accounted for in 2015: in Burundi, due to the escalation of instability and political violence amidst a climate marked by popular demonstrations, repression of dissidents and an attempted coup d’état; and in the Philippines (Mindanao-BIFF) as the result of intensified clashes between the Philippine Armed Forces and the armed group BIFF.

    • At the end of 2015, only 34 of the 35 cases were active, since the situation in India (Assam) ceased to be considered an active armed conflict due to the decrease in violence, in keeping with a pattern of reduced hostilities in recent years.

    • Eleven conflicts reported a higher intensity during the year, with a death toll in many cases well above the threshold of 1,000 fatalities per year: Libya, Nigeria (Boko Haram), Somalia, South Sudan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Ukraine, Egypt (Sinai), Iraq, Syria and Yemen (Houthis).

    • In 2015, many of the contexts of conflict (43%) reported dynamics and levels of violence similar to those of the previous year, while a decrease in the levels of confrontation was observed in nearly one third, including the case of India (Assam), which stopped being considered an armed conflict. A worsening of the situation was observed in another third of the cases, resulting from the intensification of hostilities and levels of violence. Though worse, this situation was not as bad as reported in 2014.

    • Beyond their multi-dimensional nature, the main causes of two thirds of the armed conflicts in 2015 (24 cases, equivalent to 69%) included opposition to the government (whether due to its internal or international policies) and the struggle to achieve or erode power, or opposition to the political, social or ideological system of the state. The underlying motivations of over half (19 cases, or 54%) included demands for self-determination or self-government and identity-related aspirations.

    • During 2015, armed conflicts around the world continued to have a serious impact on civilians. As detailed in the analysis of cases from each context, the consequences are not limited to mortal victims resulting from fighting, but also include massacres and summary executions, arbitrary detention, torture and many other forms of physical and psychological abuse, the forced displacement of populations, the use of sexual violence, the recruitment of children and many other forms of abuse against boys and girls, in addition to other dynamics.

    • Throughout 2015, the deliberate use of sexual violence as a weapon of war in contexts of armed conflict was observed by armed groups in countries like Iraq, Mali, CAR, DRC, Syria, Somalia, Sudan and South Sudan.

    • Forced displacement was one of the most visible consequences of armed conflict in 2015, a period that confirmed the trend observed in previous years regarding a significant rise in the number of refugees and internally displaced people around the world.

    • At the end of 2015, UNHCR’s figures based on data corresponding to the first quarter of the year noted that the total number of displaced people and refugees reached 60 million people.

    • At the close of 2015, 37 weapons embargoes were being imposed on a total of 24 states and non-state armed groups by the UN, the EU, the Arab League and the OSCE. This was one more than the previous year due to the inclusion of Yemen.

    • Twenty armed conflicts and 52 active situations of tension were reported in 2015 in which neither the UN nor other regional organisations imposed weapons embargoes.

    • Eighty-three scenarios of socio-political crisis were reported around the world in 2015. The cases were primarily concentrated in Africa (36) and Asia (20), while the rest of the situations of tension took place in Europe (11), the Middle East (11) and the Americas (five).

    • The most serious socio-political crises in 2015 took place in Central Africa (LRA), Cameroon, Chad,
      Kenya, Niger, Nigeria, Tunisia, Bangladesh, North Korea-South Korea, the Philippines (Mindanao),
      India (Manipur), India-Pakistan, Pakistan, Armenia-Azerbaijan (Nagorno-Karabakh), Russia (Kabardino-Balkaria), Egypt, Israel-Syria-Lebanon and Lebanon.

    • In line with previous years, over half the sociopolitical crises were of an internal nature (43 cases), more than one fourth were internationalised internal tensions (22 cases) and a fifth were international (18 cases).

    • Regarding the evolution of the tensions, two fifths (34 cases) reported a worsening of the situation compared to 2014, while one third (29 cases) experience no significant change and one fourth improved to some extent (20 cases).

    • In line with data from previous years, the different main causes of 67% of the tensions included opposition to the internal or international policies implemented by the respective governments, which led to conflict to achieve or erode power, or opposition to the political, social or ideological system of the respective states.

    • Four peace negotiations were resolved satisfactorily during the year: CAR, Sudan (Darfur – SLM-MM),
      Mali (CMA-Platform) and South Sudan.

    • Explorations were conducted in three conflicts for the purpose of opening a formal negotiating process: Colombia (ELN), Pakistan (Balochistan) and Syria.

    • Of these negotiations, 17.9% ran smoothly or were resolved (seven cases), 30.7% had significant difficulties (12 cases) and 43.6% failed (17 cases).

    • Seventy per cent of the active armed conflicts in 2015 for which data on gender equality are available took place in contexts with serious or very serious gender inequalities.

    • The refugee crisis in the EU was marked by the gender dimension and showed serious human rights violations against the population fleeing the wars.

    • In 2015, a high-level review was conducted on the 15 years of implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 1325 on women, peace and security.

    • Peace negotiations in Colombia, Cyprus and Afghanistan demonstrated the importance of the gender dimension in peace processes.

    • The report identifies five opportunities for peace for 2016: the restart of peace negotiations in Cyprus; the new political situation in Burkina Faso after the end of the transition process; the exploration of scenarios of peace in Thailand; the transition towards democracy and peace in Myanmar; and the positive impact of the introduction of the gender perspective in peace processes in terms of inclusiveness and sustainability.

    • The report highlights another 10 alarming scenarios ahead of 2016: the rise in violence and instability in Burundi, pushing the country to the brink of civil war; the risk for stability in Mali posed by the activities of jihadist groups; the prospects of rising violence and political upheaval in DRC; the fragility of the peace agreement in Sudan and the risks for its implementation; the polarisation of powers in the new political scenario in Venezuela; the impact of the lack of legitimacy of the Taliban leadership in the peace process in Afghanistan; the difficulties of the peace process in Mindanao; the risks of further drift in the conflict between Turkey and the PKK; the serious worsening of the situation in Yemen following the intensification of the dynamics of violence in the country; and the destabilising international effects of the jihadist threat.


    0 0

    Source: International Crisis Group
    Country: Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, China, Colombia, Côte d'Ivoire, Cyprus, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, India, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Paraguay, Philippines, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Somalia, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Tajikistan, Thailand, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), Western Sahara, World, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    CrisisWatch is a monthly early warning bulletin designed to provide a regular update on the state of the most significant situations of conflict around the world.

    Global Overview, August 2016

    The month saw Yemen’s peace talks collapse with violence there intensifying, and the Syrian conflict escalate following Ankara’s launch of a cross-border ground offensive against Islamic State (IS) and Kurdish forces, days after a major terror attack in Turkey’s south east. Troop deployments in Western Sahara threatened to bring about clashes, and violence flared in the Central African Republic. In Ethiopia and Zimbabwe, security forces brutally suppressed anti-government protests, while in Gabon, the president’s disputed re-election triggered violent clashes. In Asia, a suicide bombing killed over 70 people in Pakistan, while suspected militants in Thailand’s southern insurgency launched attacks on targets outside the traditional conflict zone. In positive news, peace talks between the Philippines government and communist rebel groups resumed after a four-year hiatus. On 24 August, Colombia and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) declared that they had reached a final peace accord, paving the way for an end to 52 years of armed conflict.


older | 1 | (Page 2) | 3 | 4 | newer